Connacht – Connemara

Connemara Irish is spoken in the west of Ireland in the Connemara region of Co. Galway, to the west of the city of Galway.

Connemara Irish phonemic consonant inventory

The consonant phoneme inventory of Connemara Irish is given below (de Bhaldraithe 1945; Ó Siadhail 1991; Ní Chiosáin & Padgett 2012). Palatalized consonants are marked with a following superscript j, and velarized consonants are marked with a following superscript ɣ. The Connemara vowel system can be roughly described as /i,e,a,o,u/, each occurring in long and short form.

Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Stop pɣ pj tˠ tj kˠ kj
bˠ bj dˠ dj ɡˠ ɡj
Fricative fˠ fj sˠ sj xˠ xj hˠ (hj)
vˠ vj (ɣ) (ɣj)
Nasal mˠ mj nˠ nj ŋˠ ŋj
Liquid lˠ lj
rˠ rj

Tongue position during palatalization

The sample images below show the position of the tongue when palatalized vs. velarized consonants are pronounced.

Click on the links to listen to hear a Connacht speaker saying words containing those consonants.

Connacht labial consonants


Learn about labial consonants

Connacht coronal consonants


Learn about coronal consonants

Connacht dorsal consonants


Learn about dorsal consonants

Photos from Connemara